Nasal Endoscopy

Nasal endoscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic procedure performed to view the nasal and sinus packages. Nasal endoscopy provides a clear picture of the interior elements of the tissue or organs, allowing the physicians to access some hidden cavities of the body. These cavities are not ordinarily visible during a normal examination procedure.

Nasal endoscopy is also known as Rhinoscopy. It is performed with the help of a nasal endoscope, which is a rigid, thin tube that contains fibre-optic cables, mounted with light. This endoscope is connected to a camera, which projects the magnified images on a screen, allowing the physician to better assess the problem.

The procedure of a nasal endoscopy

In a nasal endoscopy, the physician inserts the endoscope into the nose of the patient by guiding it through the nasal and sinus passages. The endoscope then provides the internal images, helping the doctor make a diagnosis and understand the treatment for the issue detected. In other cases, a nasal endoscopy can also be used to collect tiny samples of tissue or perform other non-invasive tasks.

The requirement of a nasal endoscopy

A person who is experiencing symptoms and issues, such as below, can require a nasal endoscopy:

  • Nasal congestion
  • Blockage in the nose
  • Nasal polyps
  • Infection in the nose
  • Sinus issue
  • Bleeding on the nose
  • Nasal tumours
  • Loss of smell
  • Cerebrospinal fluid leak
  • Headaches
  • Facial pain, especially around the sinuses and the part above the eyes

An endoscopy can also provide specific details about the bleeding area and if there is any swelling inside the nose. Moreover, it can also be used to check for growth that might be cancer. Nasal endoscopy can also be used to treat a condition such as, remove a foreign object from the nose. This problem can be used to see the effectiveness of the treatment.

Preparation of a nasal endoscopy

To prepare for nasal endoscopy, the patient must confirm about precautions of the procedure. The physician will advise the patient to stop taking certain medications, such as blood thinners, to minimize the complications from the surgery. The person is allowed to drink and eat before the procedure. Depending on case-to-case, the healthcare provider will instruct about some special precautions.

The procedure of a nasal endoscopy

Before starting the nasal endoscopy, the healthcare professional sprays a topical decongestant into the nose of the patient. This spray helps to minimize swelling and allows the nasal endoscope to pass swiftly through the nasal and sinus cavity. Additionally, in some cases, the physician might also spray an anaesthetic to numb the nose of the patient. In some rare patients, the physician might need to inject an anaesthetic.

The patient will be sitting upright in an examination chair. Once the nose is numbed with the anaesthetic, the healthcare provider will insert the endoscope into one nasal passage. The procedure can make the patient a little uncomfortable. If this happens, the doctor must be informed and the patient can be given a stronger numbing medicine.

Once inserted, the nasal endoscope will be pushed further inside the passage to gain a clear view of the nasal cavity and sinuses. The procedure may be repeated multiple times until the doctor gets all the information required. Once done, the same procedure is repeated in the other nostril. In some cases, the doctor might also extract a part of the nasal tissue to be diagnosed for serious issues, such as cancer.

Post the nasal endoscopy

The patient must talk to the doctor about what to expect after the procedure. In some cases, the physician might have some special instructions. But generally, the patient can go home right after the nasal endoscopy. Also, they can resume normal activities right after the surgery. However, the patient must inform the doctor if they experience any complications such as a nose bleed that recurs or does not go away.

The nasal endoscopy provides the required information to the physician to direct the course of treatment. In some conditions, the doctor might also order certain tests, such as a CT scan, to gain more details. If a sample tissue has been collected, the results may come after a few days.

All instructions provided by the physician regarding precautions, medicines and follow-ups should be taken seriously. The healthcare provider would also schedule a nasal endoscopy in the future to assess the effectiveness of the treatment.

Risks of a nasal endoscopy

Nasal endoscopy is a minimally invasive procedure and hence, is considered safe. But some patients might experience a few risks and complications, including:

  • Bleeding of nose
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Allergic reaction to anaesthesia
  • Allergic reaction to the decongestant

Moreover, a person with an existing bleeding disorder has a greater risk of bleeding. Also, people who take blood-thinning medications are prone to a higher risk of nose bleeding. However, the risks depend on the age and the general health conditions of the patient.

Overall, nasal endoscopy is a very effective procedure to detect any problems related to the nasal passage and sinuses. This minimally-invasive technique has rare complications and offers a very fast recovery. However, the need for the procedure will be decided by the physician depending on the case.

Lap Cholecystectomy

Cholecystectomy or gallbladder removal surgery is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ which is located below the liver on the right top-side of the abdomen and is responsible for storing bile – a fluid produced by the liver for effective digestion.

A cholecystectomy is a very common surgical procedure with minimum complications and shorter hospital stay – generally, patients can go home the same day. Depending on the condition of the patient and medical history, the surgeon may recommend one of the two methods of gallbladder removal surgery.

  • Lap Cholecystectomy: It is also called laparoscopic cholecystectomy.This is a minimally-invasive surgery in which the surgeon makes four small incisions in the abdomen to insert a flexible, thin tube mounted with a tiny, video camera through one incision. Once placed, the surgeon then inserts the required surgical tools through other incisions to remove the gallbladder. The surgical tools are guided to the exact position of the gallbladder through images on the monitor. In case, the patient shows symptoms of stones in the bile duct or any other problems, the surgeon may perform an X-ray or ultrasound to get a clear picture and take further steps. When satisfied with test results, the surgeon sutures the incisions and the patient is transferred to a recovery room. The procedure is approximately one to two hour long and is extremely safe and minimally-invasive. However, it is not the ultimate choice for all patients because depending on the severity of the case, a procedure might begin as laparoscopy but can shift to open surgery because of complications of previous operations.
  • Open Cholecystectomy: This is an invasive surgical procedure in which the surgeon makes a 6-inch deep incision in the abdomen, below the ribs on the ride side. Once the incision is made, the surgeon sets aside the muscles and tissues to reach the liver and ultimately the gallbladder to remove it. When the gallbladder is removed, the doctor sutures the incision and the patient is transferred to a recovery room. The procedure lasts for one or two hours.

Reasons for a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy can be performed to treat any of the below conditions:

  • Gallstones in gallbladder
  • Gallstones in the bile duct
  • Inflammation in gallbladder
  • Large polyps in gallbladder
  • Inflammation of pancreas due to gallstones

Risks of a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Since laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a very safe and minimally invasive procedure yet it can have certain complications. But these are very rare:

  • Leakage of bile
  • Incision Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Pain
  • Jaundice
  • Fever
  • Risks related to anaesthesia
  • Injury to surrounding organs including the liver, small intestine, etc.

Moreover, a person might experience certain digestive problems after the removal of the gallbladder. These complications include:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Flatulence
  • Constipation
  • Difficulty in digesting fat

The risks of laparoscopiccholecystectomy vary case-to-case and depend on the overall health and reason for the surgery. Consult your doctor for appropriate risk management.

Preparation of a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

To prepare for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon will recommend the patient to not eat anything before the night before the surgery. In some cases, four hours of an empty stomach is also viable for the procedure. Moreover, to ensure the surgery is effective, the surgeon will also recommend stopping the intake of certain medications and supplements since they could increase chances of bleeding.

The patient should wear loose and comfortable clothing and be prepared to spend at least one night at the hospital. However, in most cases, the patient is discharged on the same day of the surgery but is not allowed to drive back or leave without assistance.

Before a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed by keeping the patient under the influence of anaesthesia, which is given through a vein in the arm. Once, the patient is administered with anaesthesia, a thin, flexible tube is inserted down the throat to enable easy breathing.

After a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

In a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the patient can generally go home the same day since the pain is very bearable. Though in cases where complications arise, the patient might be required to stay a night at the hospital for monitoring. A full recovery will take about a week but a patient can eat, drink or walkunaided after the surgery.

Results of a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Post a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a patient will feel relieved from pain and discomfort caused due to gallstones or other related problems such as inflammation. This method also prevents gallstones from recurring unlike other conservative approaches including diet modifications.

In some cases, people might feel certain complications after the surgery; however, digestive problems are a rare complication since gallbladder is not essential for healthy digestion. That said, common problems such as loose stool or constipation can last for a day or two but will eventually be normal.

Patients can resume normal activities in a matter of days; typically in a laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery, the recovery rate is fast and a person can resume normal activities within 2-3 days. However, it is advisable to follow precautions and consult the doctor in case of any issues or before resuming normal activities.

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy – Laparoscopic Gallbladder Removal Surgery

Cholecystectomy or Gallbladder removal surgery is a very common medical procedure to remove the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ which is located below the liver on the right top-side of the abdomen and is responsible for storing bile – a fluid produced by the liver for effective digestion.

A cholecystectomy is a very common surgical procedure with minimum complications and shorter hospital stay – generally, patients can go home the same day. Depending on the condition of the patient and medical history, the surgeon may recommend one of the two methods of gallbladder removal surgery.

  • Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally-invasive surgery in which the surgeon makes four small incisions in the abdomen to insert a flexible, thin tube mounted with a tiny, video camera through one incision. Once placed, the surgeon then inserts the required surgical tools through other incisions to remove the gallbladder. The surgical tools are guided to the exact position of the gallbladder through images on the monitor. In case, the patient shows symptoms of stones in the bile duct or any other problems, the surgeon may perform an X-ray or ultrasound to get a clear picture and take further steps. When satisfied with test results, the surgeon sutures the incisions and the patient is transferred to a recovery room. The procedure is approximately one to two hour long and is extremely safe and minimally-invasive. However, it is not the ultimate choice for all patients because depending on the severity of the case, a procedure might begin as laparoscopy but can shift to open surgery because of complications of previous operations.
  • Open Cholecystectomy: This is an invasive surgical procedure in which the surgeon makes a 6-inch deep incision in the abdomen, below the ribs on the ride side. Once the incision is made, the surgeon sets aside the muscles and tissues to reach the liver and ultimately the gallbladder to remove it. When the gallbladder is removed, the doctor sutures the incision and the patient is transferred to a recovery room. The procedure lasts for one or two hours.

Reasons for a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy can be performed to treat any of the below conditions:

  • Gallstones in gallbladder
  • Gallstones in the bile duct
  • Inflammation in gallbladder
  • Large polyps in gallbladder
  • Inflammation of pancreas due to gallstones

Risks of a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Since laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a very safe and minimally invasive procedure yet it can have certain complications. But these are very rare:

  • Leakage of bile
  • Incision Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Pain
  • Injury to surrounding organs including the liver, small intestine, etc.
  • Jaundice
  • Fever
  • Risks related to anaesthesia

Moreover, a person might experience certain digestive problems after the removal of the gallbladder. These complications include:

  • Difficulty in digesting fat
  • Diarrhoea
  • Flatulence
  • Constipation

The risks of laparoscopiccholecystectomy vary case-to-case and depend on the overall health and reason for the surgery.

Preparation of a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

To prepare for laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the surgeon will recommend the patient to not eat anything before the night before the surgery. In some cases, four hours of an empty stomach is also viable for the procedure. Moreover, to ensure the surgery is effective, the surgeon will also recommend stopping the intake of certain medications and supplements since they could increase chances of bleeding.

It is advisable for the patient to wear loose and comfortable clothing and be prepared to spend at least one night at the hospital. However, in most cases, the patient is discharged on the same day of the surgery but is not allowed to drive back or leave without assistance.

Before a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed by keeping the patient under the influence of anaesthesia, which is given through a vein in the arm. Once, the patient is administered with anaesthesia, a thin, flexible tube is inserted down the throat to enable easy breathing.

After a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

In a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the patient can generally go home the same day since the pain is very bearable. Though in cases where complications arise, the patient might be required to stay a night at the hospital for monitoring. A full recovery will take about a week but a patient can eat, drink or walkunaided after the surgery.

Results of a Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

Post a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, a patient will feel relieved from pain and discomfort caused due to gallstones or other related problems such as inflammation. This method also prevents gallstones from recurring unlike other conservative approaches including diet modifications.

In some cases, people might feel certain complications after the surgery; however, digestive problems are a rare complication since gallbladder is not essential for healthy digestion. That said, common problems such as loose stool or constipation can last for a day or two but will eventually be normal.

Patients can resume normal activities in a matter of days; typically in a laparoscopic gallbladder removal surgery, the recovery rate is fast and a person can resume normal activities within 2-3 days. However, it is advisable to follow precautions and consult the doctor in case of any issues or before resuming normal activities.

Laparoscopic Surgery: Purpose, Procedure, and Benefits

Laparoscopic surgery is a form of surgery that uses a long, thin tube/flexible tool with a tiny, high resolution video camera and high-intensity light at the front, which when inserted the body of an individual can provide insights into the inner functioning of the targeted body organ or area. This tool is also called a laparoscope. As the tool moves along, it sends images to a video monitor. The entire functioning and state of the body organ or area can be seen on the monitor with the help of the video camera, which enables the doctor to know the exact condition, decide the course of treatment and often also use this technique to cure certain problems. This method of surgery is minimally-invasive or often called keyhole surgery, and uses barely any cuts; a general laparoscopy involves four cuts including the incision made to enter the body.

Purpose of a laparoscopic surgery

Laparoscopy is the best method to use when the exact nature of the problem is unclear and a real time view of the organ or problem is required. This minimally-invasive surgery is used to identify and diagnose the source of problem when non-invasive methods of diagnosis fail to detect the problem or provide clarity on the situation. In cases where methods such as X-ray, CT scan, MRI scan, or ultrasound are unsuccessful in depicting the condition of the organ in focus, and do not provide adequate information or insights for an analysis – a laparoscopic surgery comes into play. The procedure can also be used to collect a biopsy or a sample tissue from the targeted organ or area.

In all, a doctor may recommend a laparoscopy for problems affecting the body organs such as:

  • Appendix
  • Gallbladder
  • Liver
  • Pancreas
  • Small intestine
  • Large intestine
  • Spleen
  • Stomach
  • Pelvis
  • Other reproductive organs

An examination of these organs through a laparoscopy procedure can help detect some of the following issues, such as:

  • A mass or tumour
  • Fluid in the organ
  • Liver problem
  • Effect of medications
  • Cancer and the stage of cancer

Procedure of a laparoscopy surgery

Before beginning a laparoscopy surgery, it is important to keep certain things in mind such as:

  • The patient must inform the doctor about all the medications he/she is consuming, especially blood thinners, anti-inflammatory drugs, supplements of any form, vitamin K, etc. It is important to make the doctor aware of the medications because all of such medications and more can affect the outcome of a laparoscopy. More so, inform the doctor of pregnancy.
  • The doctor might ask the patient to get tested via some blood test, urinalysis, EKG, ECG, chest X-ray. The doctor will also conduct prior imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI scan.
  • It is advisable to avoid eating before certain hours of the procedure.

Once through the pre-surgery preparations, the patient is under the influence of general anaesthesia so that he does not feel any pain. The anaesthesia is given to the patient via the intravenous (IV) line placed in one of your veins.  This IV can is later used to provide special medications to the patient, as well as hydration fluids.

In some cases, where the surgery is not intense, the patient might be given a local anaesthesia instead of a general anaesthesia. In this one, the patient will stay awake during the surgery but the particular part of concern will be numb due to the impact of the anaesthesia.

One through the anaesthesia procedure, the surgeon makes the cut, to insert the long, flexible tube inside the body of the patient. Once the tool is in place, it is moved to the exact point to provide real-time images of the affected organ on the screen with the help of the video camera and the light.

The surgery barely uses cuts and the number and size of incisions made depend on the specific problem in concern and the number of problems that the surgeon wants to detect. In a general laparoscopic procedure, one to four incisions of approximately 1-2 centimetres in length are made. These incisions also act as entry gates of other tools that might be needed to perform the task in concern. For example, in cases where a biopsy needs to be done, another surgical tool might be inserted to collect the tissue sample of the organ.

Once the images are able to depict the problem and the doctors have gained all information necessary or possible to obtain through a laparoscopy procedure, the incisions are closed with surgical stitches or medical tape and bandaged to keep the protected.

While the surgery is very simple with hardly any risks or side effects, yet some of the rare cases might experience risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to the organ. That said, these risks have minimum chances of occurrence but some symptoms to watch out for include:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Intense pain  in the affected organ
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Swelling and bleeding at the incision

However, even in cases where such risks or symptoms do occur, it is possible to cure the problem and ensure 100 percent safety. On a general scale, a laparoscopic procure is one of the safest surgical procedures.

Benefits of a laparoscopic surgery

A laparoscopic surgery has many benefits such as:

  • Minimum cuts
  • Barely any scars
  • Less painful
  • Quick healing
  • Minimum side-effects
  • Quick recovery time
  • Less internal scarring
  • Economical
  • Higher success rates
  • Low chances of infection

Overall a laparoscopic surgery outweighs the benefits of an open surgery in conditions that can effectively work with a minimally-invasive diagnostic procedure.

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