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Unlikely things that are most likely to cause joint pain

Unlikely things that are most likely to cause joint pain

Joint pain is a very common problem that is experienced by people of all age groups. While people usually associate old age joint pain with old age or underlying medical conditions like arthritis, there are a variety of other factors that may be responsible for your aching limbs. In this blog, we have listed some surprisingly unusual causes of joint pain, with the help of experts from the best hospital in Kolkata.

  • Anxiety – You must be wondering how a psychological problem can lead to orthopaedic symptoms like joint pain. Well, anxiety can be of many different types, usually triggered by excessive fear and behavioural or functional disturbances. Whether you believe it or not, anxiety can indirectly trigger joint pain by releasing stress hormones that can lead to inflammation in different parts of our body. These are commonly referred to as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Extensive and gravity on long-term stress can significantly increase the levels of these, eventually resulting in the inflammation of the joints. So, joint pain is a complex yet less known symptom triggered by anxiety.
  • Weather – Did you know that the changing weather can have a drastic impact on your joints as well? People suffering from joint conditions like Arthritis 10 to experience people suffering from joint conditions like arthritis tend to experience more pain and discomfort during winters as compared to summers. A drop in the atmospheric pressure can cause your tissues to expand, thereby inducing increased pressure on the nerves that are responsible for controlling the pain signals. You will be surprised to know that there are many people out there who can predict a storm or weather change as they start experiencing pain in their joints.

Tissue expansion is not the only way by which changing the other can affect your joints. The temperature change can also bring down the fluid levels in your body and reduce lubrication.

If you think that joint pain only aggravates during the winter season you might need to reconsider that thought. Many people suffer from dehydration during the summers which can lead to excessive loss of body fluids, leading to reduced lubrication. Top orthopaedic surgeons in Kolkata suggest that this can make your joints more prone to degeneration and damage.

  • Deficiency of Vitamin D – People suffering from joint problems are often recommended to take Vitamin D. Deficiency of the same can adversely affect your joints and lead to chronic joint pain. The problem is commonly seen in people who do not eat healthy or go out in the sun. Experts specialising in knee replacement in Kolkata suggest that your joint pain is most likely to aggravate depending upon how long you are deficient in Vitamin D and this will eventually result in arthritis. All you need is 10 to 20 minutes of natural sunlight and some healthy dietary modifications. You can also go for Vitamin D supplements but make it a point to consult your doctor before taking these.
  • Food allergies – Who would’ve imagined that food allergies could be the reason behind their joint pain. Yes, you read that right. Food allergies can be the reason behind your joint pain as these can trigger your immune system, causing it to react to a particular food. The allergic reaction is often inflammatory and affects your joints as well. So it is very important to watch what you are adding to your plate and avoid food that you are allergic to. Also, it is pertinent to note that it is not only food allergies that can lead to inflammation, but also other seasonal allergies. So if you are allergic to pollens, dust, nuts, bee venom, etc it is always a better idea to take all the precautions and even if you develop an allergic reaction seek immediate medical intervention to avoid unnecessary complications.

These less-known causes of joint pain would have surely left you awestruck. To know more about joint pain and how it can be easily managed at home you can consult the best doctors in Kolkata.

Total hip replacement: An easy understanding

Total hip replacement: An easy understanding

Hip replacement is a popular orthopaedic procedure that is recommended to patients with an arthritic hip. It is the last resort of treatment when non-invasive options like medication and alternate therapies fail to give relief from pain and other symptoms. Procedures like hip and knee replacement in Kolkata, have helped thousands of patients to get back to a normal and pain-free life. Over 70,000 hip replacement procedures are performed every year in India alone.

Let us first try to understand what Arthritis is and how it affects the hips.

Well, arthritis is not a condition but an umbrella term used for a variety of conditions marked by the gradual wear and tear or degeneration of the joints. Normally the joint surface is very smooth and designed to allow pain-free movement. However, Arthritis can cause this smooth surface to wear out, thereby allowing the bones to rub against each other. This can lead to immense pain and discomfort. Experts from the best multispeciality hospital in Kolkata suggest that Arthritis can be the result of a variety of factors but it can be quite difficult to determine the exact cause. In the majority of the cases, it is linked with it should be related to wear and tear, commonly referred to as osteoarthritis.

It is pertinent to note that although arthritis is one of the major indications of hip replacement, it is not the only one. There are many other factors that can damage the hip joint and call for the need for a hip replacement. We have listed a few of these with the help of experts specialising in hip replacement in Kolkata.

  • Congenital or childhood disorders like dislocated hip,  Perthes disease, slipped epiphysis, etc.
  • Growth abnormality involving the hip
  • Excessive strain or overuse of the joint
  • Loss of blood supply to the joint
  • Chronic infection involving the joint
  • Disorders related to the connective tissue
  • Stagnant lifestyle and obesity
  • Inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis

How is an arthritic hip different from a normal hip?

In an arthritic hip, the cartilage lining is much thinner than a normal hip. In extreme cases, it might even be absent.

The capsule of the affected hip is swollen, however, the degree of damage and inflammation varies depending upon the stage and type of arthritis. The joint space is very irregular, or even narrow, which is quite evident on an x-ray. Hip Arthritis is often marked by the presence of bone spurs, that time to develop along the edges of the joint. As a result of all these, an arthritic hip tends to be very stiff, with a limited range of motion.

What are the indications of total hip replacement?

It is important to note that, although hip replacement is a very popular procedure it is not recommended to every patient. Doctors initially resort to the use of non-conservative treatment options like medication and therapies. These however do not work effectively in extreme cases, where the damage is chronic and irreversible. There are certain criteria and indications that suggest that you might need a hip replacement. These include:

  • Arthritis, that is confirmed on x-ray
  • Pain and inflammation that is not responding well to conservative treatments
  • Inability to take part in the day to day activities due to limited range of motion.
  • Pain that makes it difficult for your to sleep at night

In order to make sure that you are the right candidate, you will be required to undergo a series of tests for precise evaluation. You may be required to go for immediate surgery or asked to wait for a few months depending upon the adversity of your condition.

Total knee replacement in Kolkata: A layman’s guide

Total knee replacement in Kolkata: A layman’s guide

Knee Replacement

Recommended to go for total knee replacement, but getting second thoughts? Well, this blog is just for you, to help you understand the procedure and make an informed decision. Around 120,000 knee replacement procedures are carried out in India annually. Offered at the best Multispeciality hospital in Kolkata, knee replacement has helped to transform the lives of hundreds and thousands of people who were struggling to get back on their feet and indulge in normal day to day activities without any pain or discomfort.

What is total knee replacement?

Total knee replacement is the most common surgical orthopaedic procedure that aims at replacing all the components of the knee joint with artificially created prosthetic components which mimic the original ones in terms of structure and function. Unlike partial knee replacement, which involves the replacement of only one part of the knee joint, total knee replacement involves all the 3 components, i.e., the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone) and patella (kneecap).

Performed under the influence of anaesthesia, the surgery can take anywhere between 1 to 3 hours depending upon the extent of the damage. The procedure has a significantly high success rate with no age restriction. If you are planning to undergo total knee replacement in Kolkata, CMRI is your ultimate destination as the hospital is a hub for some of the best knee replacement doctors who are recognized both nationally and internationally.

Why have you been recommended to go for the procedure? 

Total knee replacement is recommended to patients whose knee joints have been completely damaged due to an underlying medical condition, excessive wear and tear, and injuries or trauma sustained in an accident. In such cases, the joints become dysfunctional making it difficult for you to carry out your day-to-day work, owing to the limited range of motion and excruciating pain. Degenerative joint diseases are the leading cause of knee disability. These include:

  • Osteoarthritis – Osteoarthritis is one of the most common types of arthritis that predominantly affects women above 50 years of age. It refers to the gradual withering of the cartilage that cushions the knee bones. As a result of this, the bones start rubbing against each other, resulting in chronic joint pain and stiffness.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis belongs to a special category of arthritis, i.e., inflammatory arthritis. It is marked by the inflammation or thickening of the synovial membrane, which eventually results in the loss of cartilage.
  • Post-traumatic arthritis –Experts from the best Multispeciality hospital in Kolkata usually recommend the surgery to patients suffering from any of the above-mentioned problems, in case they are not responding to medications and therapy, which are usually the first line of treatment.

Is there anything that you need to take care of prior to the procedure?

Just like any other medical procedure, total knee replacement, too, calls for the need for proper preparation. There surely are certain things that are to be taken care of, and these include:

You will be required to undergo some tests for the proper evaluation and assessment of your knees. This will help the doctors to devise a proper treatment plan in accordance with your specific needs.
You need to make sure that your doctor is well aware of your medical history and inform him/her about any medication that you have been taking. You might need to stop taking these for some time.
You will need to abstain from eating anything, starting 12 hours prior to the surgery
After the procedure, you might need to use a walker or crutches for a time. It is better to make all the arrangements beforehand so that you can have a hassle-free experience.

How is the procedure going to change your life?  Knee replacement can help to transform your life. The procedure offers relief from excruciating pain and swelling which can prevent you from carrying out your day-to-day work. With enhanced mobility and improved range of motion, the surgery makes it possible for you to indulge in various activities that you earlier used to refrain from.


A craniotomy is a surgical procedure through which the surgeon removes a part of the bone from the skull to access the brain. The surgeon then uses specialised tools to remove the bone flap temporarily and treat the medical condition. Once the condition is treated, the surgeon places the bone flap back to cover the exposed brain.

A craniotomy might be performed to treat a brain tumour, a blood clot in the brain, an aneurysm, a traumatic head injury, swelling in the brain tissue, infection or a foreign object. A craniotomy can be small or large depending on the underlying issue. They also vary in complexity. Small craniotomies are known as burr holes; whereas larger craniotomies are known as keyhole surgeries.

A craniotomy is generally performed with the assistance of stereotactic frames, image-guiders such as MRI, ultrasound, CT scan, etc. Moreover, endoscopes can also be used for assistance.

Typically, burr and keyhole craniotomies are performed to:

Place a shunt into Craniotomy

  • the brain ventricle to flush out the excess cerebrospinal fluid
  • Place a deep brain stimulator
  • Collect a sample tissue for biopsy
  • Guide an endoscope to treat larger issues such as tumour removal
  • Drain a clot in the brain
  • Place an intracranial pressure monitor

That said, complicated skull-based craniotomies, include removing the bone supporting the bottom of the brain.

Types of craniotomy

Some of the common types of craniotomies include:

  • Extended bifrontal procedure
  • Minimally invasive supra-orbital craniotomy
  • Keyhole craniotomy
  • Orbitozygomatic Craniotomy
  • Translabyrinthine Craniotomy

Reasons for craniotomy

A craniotomy can be performed for multiple reasons. Some of the most common purposes of a craniotomy include:

  • Identifying, removing or treating tumours of the brain
  • Repairing an aneurysm
  • Eliminating blood clots or blood from a leaking blood vessel
  • Treating skull fractures
  • Curing epilepsy
  • Draining out the brain abscess
  • Removing malformations and brain fistulas
  • Reducing the pressure in the brain
  • Placing stimulator devices to cure movement issues such as dystonia, Parkinson’s disease and others

However, these are not the only reasons for a craniotomy. A doctor can also suggest a craniotomy for a specific medical case.

Risk of craniotomy

Typically, brain surgery is linked to a specific area in the brain, which will be treated. Thus, the risks and complications are associated with the area that is being treated. Such as, if there is an issue in the part of the brain that controls speech, the complications will be related to speech.

That said, some of the common risks associated with a craniotomy include:

  • Infection
  • Blood clots
  • Pneumonia
  • Bleeding
  • Fluctuating blood pressure
  • Seizures
  • Allergic reaction to anaesthesia
  • Swelling in the brain
  • Leakage of the cerebrospinal fluid
  • Weakness in the muscles

However, the below complications are more specific to a particular issue within the brain. These will apply only to individuals that have the same underlying problem.

  • Problem with memory
  • Difficulty in speech
  • An issue in balancing or coordination
  • Coma
  • Paralysis

The procedure of a craniotomy

Before the procedure, the doctor will ask the patient to sign the consent form and then will conduct a preoperative neurological exam to assess the condition after the craniotomy. The patient will be asked to not eat or drink anything starting the midnight of the procedure. Women who are pregnant or think they might be pregnant, are required to disclose the same to the doctor.

The patient should also disclose any allergies or ongoing medications, as well as health complications. Smokers would be required to quit smoking and also inform about any bleeding disorders. The patient will be given a sedative before the surgery and the place of treatment will be shaved.

During the craniotomy, an intravenous line (IV) line will be placed in the arm or the hand of the patient. After this, the surgeon will make an incision as per the specific issue to be treated. Some craniotomies will involve making an incision from behind the hairline in front of the ear, etc. For procedures that require an endoscope, the incision made will be small.

The surgeon will then pull the scalp up and clip it to control bleeding and access the brain. Then a medical drill will be used to make the required holes in the skull. Post this, the bone flap will be removed and placed aside. Then the thick covering of the brain is removed to access the target area. The surgeon uses microsurgical and special instruments to treat the issue. Once the treatment is done, the surgeon sutures the layers of the brain and places the bone flap back with plates, sutures or wires.

However, in cases, where the bone has a tumour or an infection, the surgeon may not replace the bone flap. The scalp is then sutured or stapled, and a sterile bandage is placed over the incision.

Typically, a craniotomy requires the patient to stay under observation for 3 to 7 days or more depending on the condition of the patient. After the surgery, the recovery process can take 3 to 4 weeks, during which the patient will be directed to follow precautions and take medications, as suggested by the doctor.

However, if the patient experiences any of the following problems after the surgery, immediate medical attention should be sought:

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Confusion
  • Feeling sleepy all the time
  • Weakness in the arms and legs
  • Problem with speech
  • Changes in vision
  • Pain around the site of the incision
  • Problem in breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Issues in mental health
  • Seizure
  • Discoloured phlegm

Overall, a craniotomy is a very effective procedure, but it has its advantages and disadvantages. The suitability of a craniotomy for a patient is determined by the doctor depending on the underlying issue, general health of the patient and the medical history.

Tennis Elbow

Tennis elbow is also known as lateral epicondylitis, is a very painful medical condition. This occurs when tendons in the elbow are overburdened, majorly because of the recurring activity of the wrist and arm. A tennis elbow does not only happen to athletes but can also occur in normal individuals who stress their elbow. These include people engaged in professions such as plumbing, painters, carpenters, and butchers.

The tennis elbow occurs when the tendons of the forearm muscles link to a bony bump on the outer side of the elbow. If not treated, the tennis elbow pain can spread to the forearm and wrist. The condition is treatable if detected in time. In case, the condition causes symptoms of disability, surgery may be required.

Symptoms of tennis elbow

The pain of the tennis elbow can stretch to the forearm and wrist, which then tends to make the following motions difficult:

  • Turn a key or a doorknob
  • Hold something such as a coffee mug, glass, etc.
  • Shake hand
  • Grip an object

Causes of tennis elbow

Tennis elbow occurs when there is overuse or injury/strain of the muscle. This happens because the forearm muscle – used to straighten and raise the hand and wrist – is repeatedly contracted. The recurring motions and stress on the tissue may cause a chain of tears in the tendons. These tendons join the forearm muscles to the bony prominence outside the elbow.

Moreover, as suggested by the name, playing tennis can also cause this problem. Typically, because the backhand stroke is executed with poor technique. That said, some other motions of the arm that can cause a tennis elbow, include:

  • Painting
  • Driving screws
  • Butchering or cutting meat or other hard cooking ingredients
  • Repeated use of the computer mouse
  • Excessive typing
  • Usage of plumbing tools

Risk factors of tennis elbow

Some aspects that make a person more prone to a tennis elbow include:

  • Age: This condition is most commonly found in adults over the age of 30 but below 50 years. However, tennis elbow can occur in people of all ages.
  • Occupation: People who are employed in professions that involve repetitive motions of the wrist and arm.
  • Specific sports: Racket sports increases the risk of tennis elbow, more so in case, where a poor stroke technique is employed.

Diagnosis of tennis elbow

To diagnose a tennis elbow, the doctor applies pressure to the affected area to check for the intensity of pain. Moreover, the patient will be asked to move the elbow, wrist, and fingers in certain ways to check for the problem of tennis elbow.

Typically, a tennis elbow can be effectively diagnosed with the help of a physical exam and based on medical history. But in cases, where the doctor thinks that an underlying condition is causing the symptoms, an X-ray or other types of imaging testing can be suggested.

Treatment of tennis elbow

In general conditions, the tennis elbow heals on its own. However, over-the-counter pain medications and other self-care techniques can help. In cases, where these traditional methods do not work, physical therapy can be recommended by the doctor. Some severe cases of tennis elbow can be treated with the help of surgery.

Therapy: In case the cause of the problem is tennis, the doctor may suggest an evaluation of the tennis technique. If the problem is because of the profession, the doctor would suggest reducing the movements that stress the tennis elbow. In such situations, a physical therapist can help to reduce pain by suggesting exercises that help to stretch and strengthen the muscles of the forearm.

Injections: In severe cases that are not treatable via therapy, the doctor will suggest injecting platelet-rich plasma, botox, or any other type of irritant into the affected area, especially the tendon. Also, dry needling can be used to relieve pain. In this procedure, the doctor pierces the affected tendon in multiple places to treat the issue.

Ultrasonic tenotomy (TENEX procedure): This technique involves using ultrasound images to insert a specialized needle in the damaged part of the tendon. The ultrasonic emergency transmits quickly to the damaged tissue and liquefies it immediately, permitting the doctor to suction the affected tissue.

Surgery: For patients on whom non-operative methods of tennis elbow cure have not proved effective even after 6-12 weeks of treatment, surgery may be recommended. Surgery can either be done through a large or a small incision. No matter the invasiveness of the surgery, the treatment needs to be followed up with rehabilitation exercises.

On the other hand, several lifestyles and home remedies can also be advised to treat tennis elbow. These include:

  • Taking rest and avoiding activities that can intensify elbow pain.
  • Taking pain relievers.
  • Applying ice or a cold pack on the affected area 3-4 times a day for 15 minutes.
  • Generally, ensuring to avoid improper playing techniques or repetitive motions that stress the tendon.

Overall, a tennis elbow is not a very serious condition. However, if the pain is neglected for a long period and corrective treatment is not sought, the problem can intensify.

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