A Guide to Bronchoscopy

A bronchoscopy is a procedure that allows doctors to examine your lungs and airways, including the bronchi which are the main air pathways in your lungs.

To perform a bronchoscopy, doctors insert a bronchoscope through the nose or mouth and down the throat to reach the lungs. A bronchoscope is a thin tube made of fiber-optic material either flexible or rigid, containing a light and camera at the end. Based on the findings, doctors diagnose infections, tumors, or diseases in the lungs.

Doctors normally use a flexible bronchoscope to perform the procedure. But in rare cases involving excessive bleeding or a blocked airway, doctors can use a rigid bronchoscope to perform the procedure.

Nonetheless, the procedure is usually quick and painless, requires minimal preparation, and has a fast recovery time.

Why it is done

A bronchoscopy can be used to diagnose:

· A lung disease

· An infection

· A chronic cough

· A tumor

In addition, a bronchoscopy is typically used to procure mucus or tissue samples, remove foreign objects, mucus plugs, or fluid causing airway blockage. For instance, if you are experiencing breathing difficulties, a doctor may refer you for a bronchoscopy to identify the cause.

A bronchoscopy is also used as a treatment tool – for lung diseases such as cancer, collapsed lung, or abnormally narrowed airways. And to identify abnormalities in chest X-rays or CT scans that show evidences of a lung condition.

Also, during a bronchoscopy procedure, doctors can either insert a bronchoscope in airways or take a biopsy wherein a small tissue sample is extracted for testing.

How to prepare

Preparing for a bronchoscopy usually involves food and medication restrictions for a specified period. Your doctor will inform you about the necessary precautions you should take owing to your current medication use.

You have to avoid foods and drinks for at least 6-12 hours before the bronchoscopy procedure. Your doctor will also advise you against certain medications like:

· Warfarin

· Ibuprofen

· Aspirin

· Clopidogrel

· Blood thinners

You will likely be given sedative medicines via IVs or a local anesthetic spray to help you relax. Make sure to arrange a ride or someone to take you back home after the procedure. Because of the sedatives as you will be unable to drive.

In addition, have someone look after you for the entire day as sedatives may take longer to wear off.

How is the test performed?

Before the procedure, doctors spray a numbing drug or sedative into the mouth or throat. But if the bronchoscope is inserted through the nose, a numbing jelly is placed in the nostrils. Many people are given anesthesia to help them relax.

Once people start to relax from sedatives, doctors gently insert the bronchoscope into the bronchi. This usually makes people cough at first but subsides as the numbing drug takes effect. As doctors move the bronchoscope around, you can feel a tugging or pressing sensation.

The next part of the procedure is called a lavage or bronchial washing. Doctors send a saline solution through the tube to wash the lungs. Lavage is also used to collect samples of lung cells, microbes, fluids, and other substances inside the air sacs. These samples are examined later under a microscope.

Additionally, tiny brushes, needles, or forceps are sometimes passed through the bronchoscope to take small tissue samples (biopsies) from the lungs. Doctors can also insert a stent in your airways and perform an ultrasound. This helps doctors to have a clearer view of the lymph nodes and tissues around the airways.

Once the procedure finishes, doctors remove the bronchoscope. A bronchoscopy typically lasts about 30-60 minutes based on your lung condition and the number of examinations. And people can return home on the same day.

Risks and complications involved

Bronchoscopy is usually safe for most people. Nonetheless, there are certain risks involved, although uncommon and minor. Complications may arise because of the sedative used or the procedure itself.

Risks may include:

· Breathing troubles

· Minor bleeding, if a biopsy was done

· Fever

· Infection

· Pneumonia

· Abnormal heartbeat

· Low blood oxygen levels during the procedure

After the procedure, if you experience symptoms such as fever, breathing difficulties, or if you are coughing up blood – contact your doctor immediately as these symptoms indicate infection.

In rare cases, bronchoscopy can also cause a heart attack or lung to collapse which is known as pneumothorax. The chances of pneumothorax are usually increased when doctors use a rigid bronchoscope to perform the procedure.

Additional risks from anesthesia can include:

· Muscle pain

· Nausea

· Vomiting

· A slow heart rate

· Change in blood pressure

Recovery time

Recovery from bronchoscopy is fairly fast. You have to stay at the hospital for a couple of hours and let the sedative wear off once the procedure is over. Doctors usually monitor your breathing and blood pressure during the recovery time.

The numbness in your throat will subside within two hours. Following this, you can safely consume any food and drink. However, your throat will be sore for a couple of days.

Understanding Copd – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Understanding Copd – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a blanket term used to describe a group of progressive lung diseases. These diseases are chronic and cause an obstruction in the airflow from the lungs, leading to increasing breathlessness. It is caused because of long-term exposure to hazardous or chemical irritants and gases, as well as from tobacco smoking. Patients suffering from COPD are also at higher risk of developing heart problems, lung cancer, respiratory issues, and several other serious health issues. As of date, there is no cure for COPD; however, early diagnosis and the right treatment can ease symptoms and also help lead a normal life. People with COPD could live long if proper care and effective treatment are followed. That said, there are still so many people who are unaware of its existence, its symptoms, causes, and treatment. It is thus, very important to know more about COPD to ensure you take necessary precautions since there is no cure.

Types of COPD

The most common forms of COPD are:

Emphysema: In this type of COPD, the air sacs of the lungs are damaged, causing the destruction of walls and leading to the formation of one giant air sac which cannot absorb oxygen in the required quantity, causing lack of oxygen in the blood. Damaged air sac also stresses the lungs, making them stretch out, lose their springiness; this causes the airways to become flabby with air trapped inside the lungs, leading to breathlessness.

Chronic Bronchitis: In this condition, the hair-like fibres that line the bronchial tube helping the mucus to move out – are lost. The loss of these hair-like fibres known as cilia then makes it harder for the body to get rid of the mucus, leading to cough and shortness of breath. The easiest symptoms of chronic bronchitis are excessive coughing, breathlessness, and mucus that lasts for more than 3 months consistently over two years.

Refractory Asthma: This is non-irreversible asthma which does not respond to normal medications. It causes a condition where the bronchial airways tighten up and swell permanently and cannot be healed with any asthma medications.

Causes of COPD

The main cause of COPD is tobacco smoking including cigarette smoking, cigar-smoking, pipe smoke, and even second-hand smoke. A person with asthma becomes even more prone to COPD if they smoke.

Another cause of COPD is the inhaling of burning fuel from cooking and heating in houses, which tends to accumulate in the lungs due to lack of proper ventilation.

Moreover, certain other factors put one at risk for COPD, such as:

  • Exposure of irritant chemicals and gases at the workplace
  • Exposure to excessive pollution and dust

That said, these factors harm the natural process of inhaling oxygen and exhaling carbon dioxide, they damage the natural elasticity of the bronchial tubes and the air sacs leading to air being trapped in the lungs, causing shortness of breath and coughing.

Symptoms of COPD

The symptoms of COPD increase over time, they could be mild at first and intensify as the disease continues to progress.

Mild symptoms for COPD can include:

  • Recurrent coughing
  • Shortness of breath (more after physical activity)
  • Mild throat aches especially upon waking up

Intermediate stage of COPD shows symptoms such as:

  • Tightness in chest
  • Wheezing
  • Excessive difficulty in breathing
  • Chronic and consistent coughing
  • Excess sputum production
  • Need to clear mucus from lungs daily
  • Fatigue and lack of energy
  • Recurrent flu and respiratory problems

Symptoms of later stages of COPD include:

  • Excessive fatigue
  • Swollen foot, ankle or legs
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Constant lack of energy and tiredness

Symptoms that depict the need for emergency medical care:

  • Blue or grey fingernails
  • Blue or grey lips
  • Problem while talking
  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Pacing heartbeats
  • Loss of consciousness

The intensity of these symptoms vary from person-to-person, however, these symptoms worsen if the person is asthmatic or smokes.

Diagnosis of COPD

There is no particular test to determine COPD; however, the doctor will evaluate all the symptoms with the existing health issues and analyze the condition. He will assess the functioning of the lungs and also conduct a few tests to arrive at conclusions, such as:

  • Spirometry
  • Imaging tests such as an X-ray or CT scan.
  • Arterial blood gas test

 Treatment of COPD

In spite of being such a dreaded and incurable health problem, awareness about COPD is very low. Many people suffering from COPD are not even aware of it and have not got any diagnosis or medications to keep the symptoms under control. One thing that can change this is proper knowledge about COPD, its causes, symptoms, as well as treatment.

Few treatment options for COPD patients that can help ease symptoms and improve the quality of life:

Medication: The doctor will prescribe medications to soothe and widen the airways to make breathing more comfortable. The medications vary per case.

Oxygen Therapy: For patients that suffer a lack of oxygen, supplemental oxygen can be provided via masks or nasal cannula. These are also portable.

Surgery: Surgery is the last resort when all medications have failed. Surgeries could involve removing large air spaces from the lungs; removing damaged upper lung tissue or in worst cases transplantation of the lung.

Lifestyle Changes: The most important treatment for COPD is to bring certain lifestyle changes that can help soothe COPD. The changes involve quitting smoking; staying away from second-hand smoke; keeping away from hazardous and toxic gases and chemicals; staying away from excessive pollution; eating a healthy diet, and exercising as per doctors’ recommendations.

COPD need lifelong disease management. Hence, proper medical care and doctor’s consultation on methods to soothe the symptoms and lead to a better quality of life should be taken and followed.

Health Tips

Myths and Facts – Diabetes’s

There are a number of myths about diabetes that are all too commonly reported as facts. These misrepresentations of diabetes can sometimes be harmful and lead to an unfair stigma around the condition. Here are some myths and facts you should know about diabetes: 

MYTH #1:  Eating sweets causes diabetes

TRUTH: Actually, it doesn’t — at least not in the way you think. Diabetes occurs due to faulty genes and bad environment. However, eating excessive amounts of sugar may influence the genes and raise the sugar level.

MYTH #2:  People who are overweight or obese eventually get diabetes

TRUTH: Around 20 per cent of people with type 2 diabetes are of a normal weight or underweight. It is just one of the risk factors. However, many people who are overweight or obese never develop diabetes.

MYTH #3:  I have borderline diabetes, so I don’t need to worry

TRUTH: Actually, you have pre-diabetes. This puts you at greater risk for developing type 2 diabetes within 10 years and hence it should be closely monitored and managed.

MYTH #4: Type 2 diabetes is not as serious as type 1

TRUTH: Actually, both are equally serious as elevated blood glucose levels over time can damage large and small blood vessels throughout the body. The debilitating and life threatening diabetic complications includes heart attack, stroke, nerve damage, kidney failure, blindness, amputation, bowel and sexual problems.

MYTH #5:  I’ve just been diagnosed; I can’t have complications yet!

TRUTH: Actually you can. More than 25 per cent of all newly diagnosed type 2 patients have complications, as do some patients with type 1 diabetes. Many people learn that they have diabetes only after a complication brings them to their health care provider.

MYTH #6: People with diabetes can’t eat sugar.

TRUTH: Actually, people with diabetes can eat anything, including sugar.

Eat a well-balanced, nutritious diet that contains foods from all the major food groups. It should be low in fat and cholesterol.

MYTH #7: Diabetes is the leading cause of blindness, heart attack, kidney disease and amputation

TRUTH: Poorly controlled diabetes can cause these outcomes. Those who can manage their diabetes are likely to enjoy a long and healthy life.

MYTH #8: Insulin shots are very painful

TRUTH: Today’s needles are so short and thin that you can barely see the needle. Insulin, on the other hand, is injected into the fatty tissue right beneath the skin, a pretty pain-free zone. What’s more, the needles are coated with silicone, which makes them glide into your skin with little or no discomfort.  The most popular alternative delivery device to syringes is the insulin pen, which resembles a large, thick pen and houses an insulin cartridge. These pens have thin needles.

MYTH #9:  Diabetes medications make you gain weight.

TRUTH: Actually, some do, some don’t, and a newer class of drugs actually helps you lose weight. For some people, insulin can produce minor weight gain by enhancing fat storage and preventing the mobilisation of fat into energy. To remedy this, physicians recommend a slight decrease in daily calories and an increase in physical activity to halt weight gain. 

MYTH #10: Women with diabetes shouldn’t get pregnant.

TRUTH: The key to a healthy pregnancy is blood sugar control and pre-pregnancy planning. Experts recommend that a woman should consult with her obstetrician and an endocrinologist three to six months prior to conception so that her blood sugar, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and heart and vascular health are such that it is safe for her to become pregnant.

Things To Avoid If You Have Bone Tb Symptoms

Things To Avoid If You Have Bone Tb Symptoms

While tuberculosis (TB) might sound like a word of the past, it is still very much in existence even today and that too in large numbers in India. It is among the top ten causes of death in the world. It is a contagious, airborne disease that can affect any organ of the body such as lungs and spine. Tuberculosis destroys the body tissue and is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis and spreads from one person to another via tiny droplets of cough, sneeze, laugh released into the air. However, TB is not that easily transferrable unless a person spends a lot of time close to the patient infected with tuberculosis. Out of the several forms of TB, one major form is bone tuberculosis.

Bone tuberculosis affects the spine, the long bones, as well as the joints; most cases of bone tuberculosis are related to the spine column. However, bone TB can affect any bone of the body. It is caused when tuberculosis that primarily affects the lungs spreads to other parts of the body, travelling through the blood from the lungs or lymph nodes. Bone TB essentially starts when there is a lot of vascular supply in the middle of long bones and the vertebrae. Though uncommon, bone TB is rising due to widespread AIDS in India and other developing nations.

Even with advancements in the medical field, it is very difficult to diagnose bone tb since its symptoms are rare and difficult to detect. In most cases, bone TB is detected usually when the stages have progressed beyond a safe control. In many cases, bone TB might not show any symptoms until the very last stages. That said, some patients might not be aware of the presence of TB in the body at all and might detect TB and bone tb when it is too late.

However, some of the common symptoms of bone TB that must be looked out for include:

  • Chronic back pain
  • Painful swelling
  • Stiffness in joints
  • Abscesses

In further advanced cases of bone TB, symptoms might show up as:

  • Neurological disorders
  • Paralysis
  • Limb-shortening
  • Deformities in bone structures

Even though difficult to detect without medical intervention, damage caused by bone TB is usually reversible if it is treated on time and with the right medications. Treatment for bone TB could last long approximately up to 18 months or more. Surgery might be the best solution for advanced cases of bone tuberculosis where the doctors might remove a part of the affected vertebrae.

In other cases, where bone TB is detected in time, treatment would also involve avoiding certain things such as:

Excessive consumption of alcohol: Alcohol is closely linked with bone tuberculosis since it raises the level of ethanol which in turn leads to higher mycobacterium burden, impaired granuloma formation. Alcohol also reduced the response of the patient towards the Bacillus Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine, which is primarily given to prevent tuberculosis. Hence, a person suffering from bone TB must avoid alcohol consumption at all costs.

Tobacco: Tobacco in any form should be strictly avoided by a person detected with bone tb symptoms. Tobacco increases the risk of contracting tuberculosis, triggering the active tuberculosis form, and shoots up chances of recurrence of tuberculosis. More so, it also negatively affects the treatment and medications of tuberculosis, which in turn increases the risk of relapse.

Caffeine: All drinks containing caffeine such as carbonated drinks, coffee, etc. should not be consumed by a person displaying symptoms of bone tuberculosis. Caffeine is s stimulant and increases the bacterial action, hence intensifying the condition.

Refined products: Refined items such as sugar, bread, white rice, sweetened drinks, puddings, refined cereals, should be restricted from the diet of a person suffering from tuberculosis since these are known to contain properties that trigger bacterial action in people infected with tuberculosis.

Greasy food: Food items such as fried beef, chicken, chips, onion rings, and other fried items or foods that are high on saturated fat – should be avoided if a person has bone tuberculosis. These greasy foods raise the level of cholesterol, which in turn shoots up the risk for diabetes and heart problems that leads to a weakened immune system. A weak immune system acts as a breeding ground for tuberculosis bacteria. Further such foods intensify symptoms of bone tuberculosis.

Moreover, as precautionary and preventive measures, a person suffering from bone tuberculosis or any other form of tuberculosis must focus on a nutritional rich diet including fibre, protein, green leafy vegetable, etc. which are rich in iron and vitamin B. Apart from this, consumption of whole grains, antioxidant-rich vegetables, and unsaturated fat should be increases.

With approximately more than a million cases of TB in India each year, it is important for everyone to know the signs and symptoms of TB to ensure they can get the needed medical help and ensure their safety and of the others.

Understanding Tuberculosis – No more a forgotten story

Understanding Tuberculosis – No more a forgotten story

Tuberculosis or more popularly known as TB is a contagious, airborne disease that primarily affects the lungs; however, it can spread to other organs of the body such as the brain and spine – destroying the body tissue. Tuberculosis is caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis and spreads from one person to another via tiny droplets of cough, laugh or sneeze released into the air. That said, it is not so easy to get infected with the TB virus. A person needs to be close to the person having the TB disease for a long period of time to be infected with the disease. It can easily spread amongst family members, close friends, co-workers, or anyone if the engagement lasts longer in a closed space. Having said that, some patients suffering from tuberculosis might not feel sick because the disease is primarily of two forms:

  • Latent TB: In this form of tuberculosis, the germs are present in the body of the person, but the immune system restricts their growth, thereby ensuring sound health without any TB symptoms or risk of spreading the infection. However, the infection stays inside the body and can become active if the immune system is compromised due to many causes.
  • Active TB: This is the severe form of latent TB, where the germs affect the body and also multiply to make you sick. This TB is also contagious and is mostly the result of reactivation of latent TB.

TB in the active form is a serious infectious disease, which can be cured with early diagnosis and treatment. Any delay in treatment can lead to the death of the patient. Hence, it is very critical to know the symptoms of TB so that one can be aware and know when to seek medical help.

For latent TB since there are no symptoms, it is advisable to get a blood or skin test to know if you have the infection.

For active TB, one must be cautious and lookout for some of these general symptoms, such as:

  • A dense cough lasting more than 3 weeks
  • Acute chest pain
  • Pain in breathing or coughing
  • Blood in cough
  • Constant fatigue and extreme tiredness
  • Night sweats
  • Severe chills
  • Consistent fever especially low-grade
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unexplained weight loss

These are general symptoms and a person infected with TB may display some or all of the symptoms. However, if the infection spreads to other organs of the body, the symptoms will differ and will depend on the infected organ such as – if the TB spread to spine and infects it, a person might experience acute back pain, whereas if the TB spread to the kidneys, the person will have blood in urine.

While TB is highly contagious, it does not thrive on surfaces and cannot spread by shaking hands with an infected person or sharing food. Moreover, a person needs to be near the infected for a long period of time to contact the virus. In that regard, people who are at most risk to contract the infection are:

  • Friends
  • Co-worker
  • Family
  • People who have travelled to TB infected areas such as Russia, Asia, Eastern Europe, Asia, etc.
  • People who live in a hospital or a nursing home.

Apart from these, it is most likely that people with a weak immune system are more prone to be contacted with the infection. These could include:

  • Babies and young children – with developing immune systems
  • People who have diabetes or kidney disease
  • HIV/ AIDS patient
  • Organ transplant patients
  • Cancer patients
  • People with auto-immune disorders
  • Malnourished or underweight people
  • Chain smokers
  • Substance users (alcohol and drugs)

For many people, tuberculosis may sound like a disease of the past, but the infection is still claiming a lot of lives in India. So, it is important to know how to prevent and treat the condition.

To minimize the chances of getting infected with TB it is best to get the bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccinations. However, if you have latent TB, one must get proper medical treatment to remove the infection, even if there are no symptoms. TB medications or preventive therapy last for a long period of time – approximately 6-12 months. Further, it is also important to not spread the infection further to more people. Some of the steps that can help are:

  • Avoid public transportation
  • Stay indoors and stay away from people
  • Take all medication properly
  • Cover your mouth while coughing, sneezing, and talking
  • Wash your hands regularly
  • Wear a mask
  • Ventilate the room

While it is important to know the signs, symptoms and preventive measures for TB, it is also critical to understand how you can cure these symptoms and be TB free. If detected on time and given proper medical attention, TB is almost completely curable. When you experience any of the symptoms mentioned above, consult your doctor and get tested. The doctors will prescribe antibiotics which will last for a long duration and would need to taken dedicatedly. More so, in cases where the TB is resistant to certain drugs, the condition (known as ‘drug-resistant’) needs more intense treatment and stronger drugs. Once, through the treatment, approval from the doctor that you are no longer contagious is necessary to ensure you are not spreading the virus to other people.

With approximately more than a million cases of TB in India each year, it is important for everyone to know the signs and symptoms of TB to ensure they can get the needed medical help and ensure their safety and of the others.

Understanding Tuberculosis and its effect on the throat

Understanding Tuberculosis and its effect on the throat

Tuberculosis or TB is a disease caused by a type of bacteria, called Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which spread from person-to-person through air; this bacterium is released into the air when a person infected with TB coughs, sneezes, laughs, etc. However, it is not easy to be infected with tuberculosis easily; one needs to be in close proximity with the infected person for a prolonged period of time. It cannot spread from person-to-person by simple shaking of hands, sharing of food, etc. Thus, people more prone to being infected with tuberculosis are generally the family members, close friends, co-workers, etc.

Tuberculosis primarily affects the lungs or throat, though it has the potential to spread to other organs in the body such as the bones and joints. In fact, tuberculosis in the throat and lungs is the only form of tuberculosis which has the potential to spread to other organs; this is called pulmonary tuberculosis. In any form, if tuberculosis is left untreated, it can become life-threatening in fact even a delay in treatment can cause severe health issues. That said, it is easily curable provided it is diagnosed early and proper medical attention is received. Also, the aggressiveness of tuberculosis also depends on its type; in many cases people might have a latent form of tuberculosis which remains inactive and does not cause any harm. In other cases, active form of tuberculosis can prove fatal if not treated. Also, latent TB can become active if the immune system of the patient is compromised due to any reason.

People who have weak immune system include, but are not limited to:

  • Babies and young children – with developing immune systems
  • People who have diabetes or kidney disease
  • HIV/ AIDS patient
  • Organ transplant patients
  • Cancer patients
  • People with auto-immune disorders
  • Malnourished or underweight people
  • Chain smokers
  • Substance users (alcohol and drugs)

Symptoms of Tuberculosis in Throat

The TB bacteria primarily affect the lungs and the throat, before spreading to any other body organ. In case of latent TB, the person does not experience any symptoms unless the infection becomes active. It can only be diagnosed via blood and skin tests. On the other hand, active TB produces symptoms which are easy to identify. Some of these symptoms include:

  • A dense cough lasting more than 3 weeks
  • Acute chest pain
  • Pain in breathing or coughing
  • Blood in cough
  • Constant fatigue and extreme tiredness
  • Night sweats
  • Severe chills
  • Consistent fever especially low-grade
  • Loss of appetite
  • Unexplained weight loss

A person suffering from tuberculosis might have some or all of these symptoms depending on the severity and growth of infection in the body. Also, the symptoms tend to vary as the bacteria starts to impact other body organs. These symptoms depend on the concerned organ such as if a person has tuberculosis which has spread to the spinal cord, he/she will experience sever backache, etc. and in cases, where the TB has affected the kidneys of a person, there will be symptoms such as blood in urine. These symptoms can occur in combination with other general TB symptoms or individually.

Spreading of Tuberculosis in Throat

Tuberculosis is contagious but it does thrive on surfaces and hence, cannot affect the other person through simple activities such as shaking hands, sharing food, etc. The infection only spread to another person if the infected person is in close contact for a long period of time. Some people who are more prone to being infected due to proximity include:

  • Family
  • Close friends
  • Co-workers
  • People who have travelled to TB infected areas such as Russia, Asia, Eastern Europe, Asia, etc.
  • People who live in a hospital or a nursing home.

Also, people with a weakened or compromised immune system are more prone to being infected with the virus.

Diagnoses of Tuberculosis in Throat

Symptoms of tuberculosis help to diagnose the disease which is further evaluated or confirmed by two specific tests. These include:

Skin Test: Also known as Mantoux tuberculin skin test, this test involves injecting a specific fluid into the skin of the lower arm of the patient and analysed for any swelling post 2-3 days. In case of swelling, the result is positive and there can be presence of TB bacteria in the body.

Blood Test: These are specific blood tests called nterferon-gamma release assays or IGRAs, which determine the presence of TB by mixing TB protein with some blood.

In case, any of the tests result positive, they are further confirmed through a CT scan or an X-Ray of chest or throat to detect any changes in lungs and the presence of TB bacteria.

Treatment and Prevention of Tuberculosis in Throat

Tuberculosis of any form including the throat can be prevented by taking vaccinations such as BCG vaccine to prevent the infection from entering the body. For people that have latent TB infection, it is important to get attentive medical care and take all medications to remove the bacteria and prevent it from becoming active.

Moreover, in cases where a person has active TB, it is important they get their medications which will last 6-12 months. Also, it is important to limit or restrict all contact with other people. Follow simple precautionary steps such as covering the mouth while yawning, sneezing, coughing, laughing, etc.

In case of people who are travelling to places that have a common presence of TB, it is important to get preventive vaccinations and avoid spending time in crowded places.

Tuberculosis of the throat is easily preventable and treatable provided proper medical care is received. In case, active TB cases are ignored and no medication is received for treatment, the patient can succumb to the infection.

With more than a million cases of tuberculosis in India, reported every year, it is critical to understand the symptoms and get the right treatment

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