In the world from ancient time to our today’s modern time we have to face different challenges to keep ourselves and our society in a perfect healthy state. Nature has its own ecosystem to keep balance in the world. There is a perfect equilibrium created by nature between all. Form the largest living creature to the smallest microbes there is a well defined role to perform means nothing in this world is useless. Whenever this balance is disturbed in any manner the whole world has to suffer for this. In most of the cases human are found responsible for creating such kind of imbalance. Generally excessive use or misuse of any natural resource results in the form of natural calamities and whole world has to face the adverse consequences of it from time to time. In the history not only once but many time such disasters are caused by the human’s experiments sometime intentionally while sometime unintentionally. Such disastrous experiments or acts done by us always not only give huge loss to us but whole world has to pay for it. Covid-19 is one of such kind of activity form humans. A specific detail about the origin and reason of spread is not very sure. According to details we have the corona virus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a highly transmittable and pathogenic viral infection caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). As per the details available it emerged in Wuhan, China and spread around the world. Covid-19 has spread almost in whole world. It is causing maximum damage also. Many viruses we have come across in the past and fortunately we control them in a safe way. This is not first time and not the last time but we know that whole world community is ready to fight with it. We all together will surely defeat it.
How it Spreads
Covid-19 has become pandemic threat to the world. Covid-19 is transmittable viral infection caused by corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is found that SARS-CoV-2 is genetically related to SARS-like bat virus, therefore bats could be the possible primary reservoir. The source of origin and transfer to humans is not known yet. Its rapid human to human transfer has been confirmed all over the world. Many observations indicated a human to the human spreading capability of this virus and it was subsequently reported in more than 100 countries in the world. The spreading of the virus occurs due to close contact with an infected person to a healthy person. When a healthy person is exposed to coughing, sneezing, respiratory droplets or aerosols of an infected person get infected and become the carrier of it. These droplets can enter the human body (lungs) through the nose or mouth. Even if the person does not inhale but it can carry it with the hands or clothes etc and later when touches the eyes, mouth or nose got infected and as a chain transmit it to others. In this way it spread very fast and in fact whole community could get infected. Today most of the countries in the world are affected by it.
Common myth and facts
There are many myth and fact about covid-19
Myth – Cold weather and ice can kill corona virus.
Fact – According to World health organization there is no reason to believe that cold weather can kill the corona virus. This is because human body temperature remains around 36.5o C to 37o C regardless of the external temperature or weather.
Myth –The corona virus can transmitted through mosquito bites.
Fact – to date there is no information nor evidence to suggests tha corona virus could be transmitted by mosquito bite. It only spread through droplets generated when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
Myth – Vitamin C supplements will prevent one from catching covid-19.
Fact – Researchers yet to find any evidence that vitamin C supplements can render people immune to covid infection.
Myth- Drinking Silver can kill strains of corona.
Fact- An American televangelist has falsly cklaimed colloidal silver which is particle suspended in a liquid can kill corona virus in 12 hours and boost the immune system. There is no evidence that drinking silver helps, rather it can lead to kidney damage and seizer.
Myth –Kids can’t catch the corona virus.
Fact – children can definitely catch covid though initial reports suggests ferwer cases in children compared with adults but studies suggest children are as likely as adults to become infected.
Myth- A Vaccine to cure COVID -19 is available.
Fact – Currently there is no vaccine for the corona virus. Scientist has already begun working on one. But it will take time to get a human vaccine.
Corona virus and mental health
Our health is always a prime concerns for all but in the covid-19 outbreak we suddenly facing a all together different scenario. In our daily life we have a fix routine to follow from waking up in the morning till we go to sleep at night. Suddenly due to lock down all our activities got stopped and we are confined to our house only. This creates an emptiness in and around us which is not good for our physical and mental health. In such a scenario we began to do some such activities unknowingly with is very dangerous for our physical as well as mental health. On the other hand covid-19 outbreak is creating a psychological pressure on us due to high uncertainty about its cure and about the future work life. This situation can disturb the mental health as well as physical health. World health organization has issued many guidelines regarding it. First of all listen to authentic information channels about the situation and daily updates only. We should follow the daily routine like get up and go to bed at similar time every day. Keep personal hygiene and eat healthy food at regular times. Exercise regularly and allocate time for work and rest in regular manner. Most important make time to do things you enjoy. Minimize news feed as it makes you anxious. Social contact is very important. As the movements is restricted keep in touch with friends and relatives through phone and social media etc. and try to talk about some different topic other than present world’s situation. Beware of how much time do spend in front of the screen it could be mobile, laptop etc. give regular breaks in between. Spending quality time with children talking to them playing with them etc. but not just about studies. While spending time with your children do activities like drawing singing playing indoor games etc. Make sure the children should also be in contact of the friends and relatives through call, video call or social media. Most importantly read good books as books are our best friends and very good feed to our mind. Listening music is also a very good support to a good mental health. This time can be used to spend doing gardening, painting etc. means keep yourself indulge in your hobby activities which you love to do but due to busy life style unable to do in your life. Doing Meditation is a very good activity to maintain a good mental health. Meditation means what just wake up early in the morning when the atmosphere is generally very cool and peaceful. After waking up and doing your morning routine spend fifteen minutes with yourself in complete silence doing nothing sitting ideal in your open portion of house like balcony terrace etc. This simple exercise will give inner strength to you. Li Support others specially the corona warriors working for us day and night. Don’t discriminate with the person infected or possibly suspected of the infection. Doing all these activities will surly boost the person mentally, physically and spiritually.
How to protect yourself
Prevention is always better than cure in every aspect of life it is proven. During covid-19 spread having right information and up to date facts about covid-19 is the best way to keep protected. Awareness is the most effective way to keep ourselves protected during the covid-19 outbreak. Following all the rules made by our authorities is must for us also helping others to follow. During the spread of covid-19 we should avoid travelling if not necessary. Even if we have to go to public places cover your mouth by mask as recommended and also follow social distancing from the people at public places. Avoid touching things and places while we are out for the work. We should not shake hands with anybody and maintain the distance. If you bring something like vegetables, daily need products wash them properly with soap and water or keep them in aside for at least 24 hours. Every time you came back from outside wash your hands for minimum 20 seconds with soap immediately after entering the house without touching anything or anybody. Maintain proper hygiene in your house. Always cover your mouth with a cloth or if possible with tissue paper while coughing or sneezing. After coughing or sneezing wash your hands and put away the tissue paper in the covered dustbin. After using mask while going out put the mask in dustbin if it is a disposable mask and if it is a washable mask wash it. Don’t take out the mask from your mouth by touching it from mid or front just hold its string and remove it. Eating plenty of fruits and vegetable and drinking plenty of fluids is also a better way maintaining your good health. Following the instruction completely and staying at home is a easiest way to protect yourself and others from covid-19.
Signs and symptoms
Covid-19 or corona virus is a kind of virus that causes an infection in the nose, sinuses, or upper throat. Covid-19 if not diagnosed or taken care off could prove to be fatal in some cases. People of old age age group especially having a history of diseases like cardio vascular, respiratory disorder, diabetes or any chronic disorder is more prone to this virus. Hence old people and people with immunity disorder should take extra precaution and stay in door. Right information about the covid-19 is the best ways to fight it. If anybody in our family or neibourhood got sick we should know whether it is covid-19 or not for this purpose we should know the common sign and symptoms of covid-19. The common symptoms in generally visible from 2-14 day after getting into the contact of an infected person or get infected from any means. The symptoms could be mild or severe in the initial days of infection. The most common symptom of person with covid-19 is fever. In most of cases the fever is primary symptom hence thermal screening is done largely on public places. Sometimes the person feels fatigue even less or no work is done by him, this is also one of the symptoms. If a person is having dry cough is a symptom. When the person is feeling loss of appetite than it might be a symptom of covid-19. Having body ache, shortness of breath and mucus or phlegm could be prominent symptoms. Other symptoms may include sore throat, headache, chill sometime with shaking, loss of smell or taste, stuffy nose, nausea or vomiting and diarrhea which are found in some cases not necessarily in all. It is observed that in some cases there are very mild or even no symptoms are found but the person is found infected. If there is a possible direct or indirect contact with infected person or have to visit such place one should take necessary precaution to protect himself, his family and the society. Taking precaution is the very effective way to stop or slow down the spread of covid-19. In the initial stage of infection the symptom could be very mild. Stay away from the person coughing or sneezing by keeping 1 meter distance and covering the face with mask.
Covid-19 has spread at a very fast pace in the whole world. The entire research community is trying to find a possible remedy for it. There is always simple rule to solve any problem find source cause, find preventive measure and ultimate fine a cure to it. In the procedure of finding a solution to any problem search of cause and origin is very important. Knowing the cause or origin of your problem means half battle won. Covid-19 is like a disaster to the entire world. The research teams in the whole world are doing level wise research to find all about it. It is found during the research that covid-19 is and virus originated disease caused by corona virus2. It is found that Covid-19 or Corona virus Disease is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome – Corona Virus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). It is a single-stranded ribonucleic acid (RNA) encapsulated. Corona virus and is highly contagious. It is assumed that the origin and cause is found to be from some bat virus which first infected some animal like snake through which it infected a human at Wuhan, China animal market. Now it is spreading through human to human. Its transmission is found to be predominantly by droplet spread (i.e. relatively large particles that settle in the air) during coughing and sneezing, and direct contact with the patient. It is not ‘airborne spread’ (in which smaller particles remain in the air longer). There is still no specific treatment available for Covid-19 infection, only supportive therapies including respiratory care for affected patients. The research also found that if we stop or slow down its spread we will be able to control it in initial level. In some countries this is controlled up to some extent. The research is going on in full swing to find any vaccine to stop it forever.
Knowing your problem before starting to find a solution to it is the most important part of any research. Covid-19 comes as a disaster and a very big challenge the medical community of the whole world. They have already found out its cause and origin. It is also found that till there is no preventive medicine is not available and only one way to control it is don’t let it spread it any more.
Diagnosis plays a very important role to achieve this target. First of all diagnosing the infected person in the community and make certain arrangements to quarantine them so that spread to others could be stopped. Initially diagnosing through the testing was a very challenging as after collecting the sample it has to be send to some central laboratories takes too much time and have to wait for many days. The initial testing kit was very limited to some laboratories but later new testing kit is developed named Rapid diagnostic test kit.
Rapid diagnostic test kit makes it easier for the professionals to carry out more tests at local levels. Rapid diagnostic test gives initial reports in very less time. The action team can easily identify and quarantine such infected person immediately. The Rapid diagnostic test kit for corona virus is of two types. One is Rapid diagnostic test kit base on host antibody detection. The second one is Rapid diagnostic test kit based on antigen detection. These rapid diagnostic test kits are used by everyone in the world and as far as their result is concern it is satisfactory. Rapid testing kits are prove to be a very important part in war against covid-19.With such diagnosis and prompt action we will be able achieve our primary target to slow down or stop the spread of covid-19.
Prevention is always better, safe and less expensive than cure. It is our moral duty to protect ourselves and help the community by preventing the transmission of covid-19 to the community. It is very easy to prevent by taking few small steps and inform others about it. Prevention is the best way to defeat corona. First of all we should start with a very simple step by washing hands regularly with soap and water or clean them with alcohol based hand rub. Another very important measure is to maintain minimum 1 meter distance between ourselves and others especially person who are coughing or sneezing. One should avoid touching the face unnecessarily as it could help infection to spread. One should cover the mouth and nose before coughing or sneezing with cloth or a tissue paper. Wash the cloth used and in case of tissue paper through them in the covered dustbin immediately. One should wear mask before going out in case any urgent work to do also maintain safe distance of 1 meter at public places. One should avoid shaking hands. One should stay home in case not feeling well or don’t have any urgent work to go out. One should refrain from smoking and other activities that weakens the lungs. Practice physical distancing by avoiding unnecessary travel and stay away from large groups of people. One should avoid the social, religious or formal gathering of people. Wash fruits or vegetable properly with soap and water before eating. Keep the things separately for 24 hours minimum after bringing from market if washing is not possible. Keep proper hygiene to avoid falling sick. One should take adequate rest, proper healthy diet, and do regular exercise to keep fit. If fall sick take proper rest and follow the guidance of the health professional. Last but not least spread all this information to maximum number of person one can.
Treatment is itself a very complicated process in general health issues. In the case of any epidemic specially one like covid-19 it becomes quite a challenge for both the patient and the professionals. From diagnosis to getting well and discharge it’s like a challenge for both. The medical professionals not only have to take care of the patients but have to protect themselves from getting infected at the same time. The working day night not only gives physical tiredness but also a great mental stress. Hence a treatment in such epidemic is a complete package of precaution, medical treatment, psychological counseling etc.
After the diagnosis and confirmation of the infection the medication is a main concern. This is very unfortunate that till today there is no specific medicine available for treatment or prevention of covid-19 approved by any competent research authority. The option in treatment for covid-19 includes infection prevention, control measures, supportive care, including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilator support when needed.
The antiviral drug Remdesivir is an exception, no drugs have been found to be effective for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. Remdesivir is given emergency use authorization (EUA) from the FDA on May 1, 2020, based on preliminary data which shows a faster time to recovery of hospitalized patients with severe disease.
Personal protective equipment
It’s very important to take precaution on personal basis to avoid getting infected. The way of protecting against the covid-19 at the time of treatment is to avoid getting indirect contact with the person and infected droplet. A special protection kit is made to use universally for the corona warrior keeping view all the possible aspect of protection against covid-19 named PPE. Personal protective equipment (PPE) kit is specially designed for the professionals. It is made up of polyester with PVC coating making it water proof. It in general covers from head to toe for the purpose. It is comprise whole body cover (gown) with a high filtration mask along with hood including face shield for eyes protection, non disposable isolation gloves and patient handing gloves separately. Hands rub formulations containing 75% isopropanol or 80% ethanol is also a very important part of self protection.
In severe cases the patient has be in constant supervision and has taken a special care. Approximately 15% of individuals with COVID-19 develop moderate to severe disease and require hospitalization and oxygen support. Due to inflammation in the lungs few of them require to an Intensive Care Unit and supportive therapies including intubation and mechanical ventilation.
Acute Respiratory Distress syndrome
In complicated case when the patients having severe complication breathlessness get converted in to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is a life-threatening condition which is characterized by the sudden onset of severe respiratory disorder. ARDS is a secondary condition and is induced due to inflammation of the lung alveoli, which results in protein and fluid entering the interstitial space and alveoli. Respiratory failure could be possible in this kind of pulmonary infiltrate or, in approximately 20-30% of ARDS cases, death.
The lungs are the primary site of dysfunction for an individual with ARDS, many of the other systems will stop functioning due to the decrease in blood oxygen levels. Because ARDS can occur in an individual of any age, the result of the condition may also result in death of an individual.
As far as the epidemic covid-19 patients treatment is a great challenge because no specific treatment is available. In general the patients have to be given preventive treatment to avoid further complications. There are no drugs presently approved by any research authority to prevent or treat COVID-19. The treatment for covid-19 includes infection prevention and control measures with supportive care, including supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilator support when needed.
There are few trial treatments going all over the globe like passive antibody therapy, Anti cytokine storm, Anti viral drug trial etc. but there are no clear approved evidence found there yet. In such cases the regular updates from the research team keep the medical team update. The research teams all over the world are doing such experimental treatments which could possibly give a better result.
Information technology is a true back bone of any field today. It provides the all current and previous research reference data at our figure tip round the clock means 24X7 that too globally. Information technology plays a very supportive role in such crucial situation of any epidemic like covid-19. Through the Information technology the medical team get the constant updates from all over worlds research team and share the data of the patients testing, treatment history and responses with them so that they can perform their research on war level. They can be connected any part of the world with any research team not only by data but also through video conferencing that too in no time. The inter coordination of the two proves to of great help. Information technology plays a great role in saving life a number of patients. This is possible just for because of the information technology.
In the case of any epidemic like covid-19 the whole system is on great psychological stress. It is very important that a the persons dealing with the situation whether a medical professionals, security professionals, patients, patient’s relatives and even general public should have a stress free mental status. Covid-19 restricted the activities of all and reduction of pleasant events create multiple problem in personality issue related mental disorders are the common problem most of the people are facing. Patients and their families are under the stress that whether they are going to recover or not. The professional are doing their best but due to long working hours and high adverse condition they are under high mental stress. Psychological support session in terms of counseling session and activities sessions to boost confidence is must and plays a very important role in this situation.
A massive research is going on war level throughout the globe to get a sound solution of covid-19 outbreak. There are many trails are going on but till today no success is obtained but hoping for a in the coming time.
Vaccine is the full proof solution of any disease or epidemic with which we can prevent spreading forever. If a person get vaccinated than he will be safe against that particular disease. The vaccine help our natural defense system to build a antibody system against that particular infection. A vast research is going in the whole world to get a vaccine for covid-19 but till today didn’t get one invented.
There are no drugs or other therapeutics presently approved by any research authority to prevent or treat COVID-19. Accept Antiviral medicine Remdesivir, no drugs proven to be effective for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19. Remdesivir is given an emergency use authorization by an authorized research agency on May 1, 2020, based on preliminary data showing a faster time to recovery of hospitalized patients with severe disease.
Anti cytokine storm
Our body has a defense system mechanism which gets activated if we get any infection and start producing a substance called cytokine. One of the great mysteries of the Covid-19 (corona virus) is why it causes only mild disease in most people, but turns fatal for others. In many cases, it seems the worst damage may be due to a deranged immune response to the infection, rather than the virus itself.
In many of the sickest patients with COVID-19, high levels of immune system proteins called cytokines found in their blood.
Scientists believe these cytokines are evidence of an immune response called a cytokine storm, where the body starts to attack its own cells and tissue rather than just fighting off the virus.
Cytokine storms are observed in many diseases related to autoimmune disorder. They also occur during certain kinds of cancer treatment, and can be triggered by infections, like the flu.
The virus that causes Covid-19 has been circulating for only a few months, early research shows that it too, may cause this kind of catastrophic immune problem like other infections Research is still going on some such medicine which could stop this cytokine storm named Anti cytokine storm.
Passive antibody therapy
The antibodies are produce by our body to protect against a particular disease. The antibodies have been used effectively in protecting against several human and animal diseases. The trials of plasma therapy against covid-19 have been reported to be working. This therapy has several practical and theoretical limitations in the availability of human plasma samples for trial. Covid-19 has become a major crisis for whole world; scientists are exploring alternative strategies of using horses or other higher animals to generate antibodies against the Covid-19.
It is always a great challenge for the world to maintain good health for the whole society since the start of life. Time to time many health threats comes to us and we have overcome all the time. During all previous pandemics huge number deaths occurs in the world but we not only able to control them but eradicate them. Health is always a prime concern for all of us. The covid-19 has infected almost every part of the world and whole medical fraternity is committed to defeat it. It is observed that the only solution to control covid-19 is if we can slow down the speed of its spread among community. On the other front our research community is working with commitment on war level to find a solution for its complete removal. In today’s world information technology has made it is very easy to share the data and analysis which speed up the research.
It is the responsibility of all of us to play an active role in the fight against covid-19. It is very easy for all of us to just follow the simple instruction to stop community spread of covid-19. We have got so much positive response from the research going on all over the world and soon we will win this challenge also. The one slogan to fight covid-19 is “stay home stay healthy”.
Q.1 what is covid-19?
Ans. Covid-19 is the infectious disease caused by corona virus. Covid-19 is now a pandemic affecting whole world.
Q.2 what are the symptoms of covid-19?
Ans. The most common symptoms of COVID-19 are fever, dry cough, and tiredness. Other less common symptoms are aches and pains, nasal congestion, headache, conjunctivitis, sore throat, diarrhea, loss of taste or smell or a rash on skin or discoloration of fingers or toes. These symptoms are usually mild and begin gradually. Some people become infected but only have very mild symptoms.
Q.3 How does covid-19 spread?
Ans. Covid-19 is an infectious disease which spread from infected person to other person. The disease spreads primarily from person to person through small droplets from the nose or mouth, which comes out with coughs, sneezes, or speaks. People can catch COVID-19 if they breathe in these droplets from an infected person. These droplets can stick on objects and surfaces around the person such as tables, door knobs and handrails others who touches it get infected. People can become infected touching their eyes, nose or mouth without washing hands. It is important to wash hands regularly with soap and water or clean with alcohol-based hand rub.
Q.4 Can covid-19 be caught from a person who has no symptoms?
Ans. Many people with COVID-19 have only mild symptoms in the early stages of the disease. In some cases it is indicated that people with no symptoms were found infected. Yes they can transmit the virus.
Q.5 How can we protect ourselves and others if don’t know who is infected with covid-19?
Ans. Washing hands and wearing mask while going out in public place is the best way to protect others and yourself. Always maintain at least a 1 meter distance between yourself and others. This is especially important if you are standing near to someone who is coughing or sneezing. Since some infected persons may not have any symptoms or their symptoms may be mild, hence maintaining a physical distance with everyone is a good idea.
Q.6 what should one do if come in close contact with covid19 infected person?
Ans. If someone has been in close contact with someone with COVID-19, he may be infected. Close contact means that you live with or have been in sittings of less than 1 meter from those who have the disease. In these cases, it is best to stay at home. He does not ignore symptoms of fever. Seek medical help. When hw attend the health facility wear a mask, keep at least 1 meter distant from other people and do not touch surfaces with your hands.
He should do self-isolate, monitor himself, If do not have symptoms, but have been exposed to an infected person, must self-quarantine for 14 days. If he has definitely had COVID-19 (confirmed by a test) self-isolate for 14 days even after symptoms have disappeared as a precautionary measure. It is not yet known exactly how long people remain infectious after the recovery.
Q.7 Can children or adolescent catch covid-19?
Ans. Research indicates that children and adolescents are just as likely to become infected as any other age group and can spread the disease. Children and adults should follow the same guidance on self-quarantine and self-isolation, they have been exposed or are showing symptoms. It is particularly important that children avoid contact with older people who are more prone to infection.
Q.8 Is there a drug, vaccine or treatment for covid-19?
Ans. There are no drugs or other therapeutics presently available which is approved by appropriate authority to prevent or treat Covid-19. The available treatment includes infection prevention and control measures with supportive care.
Q.9 How to wash fruits and vegetables before use?
Ans. We buy fruits and vegetables from market and they could be a source of infection. As fruits and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet. We should wash them before using. Wash your hands with soap and water, and then wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly with clean water, especially if you eat them raw.
Q.10 Are antibiotics effective against covid-19?
Ans. We should avoid self medication. It is fact antibiotics do not work against viruses; they only work on bacterial infections. COVID-19 is caused by a virus, so antibiotics do not work. In hospitals physicians will sometimes use antibiotics to prevent or treat secondary bacterial infections which can be a complication of COVID-19 in severely ill patients. They should only be used as directed by a physician.