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  • Calcutta Medical Research Institute 7/2 Diamond Harbour Road Kolkata-700027, West Bengal

Department of Endocrinology

Department of Endocrinology

The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, which secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. Hormones have many different functions and modes of action. One hormone may have several effects on different target organs, and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one hormone.

The Department of Endocrinology at CMRI offers comprehensive endocrinology care and non-invasive diagnostic services. Our endocrinologists are always available for consultation to be it evaluation, diagnosis, or treatment of problems arising from the malfunctioning of hormone-secreting glands. We aim to nip such problems in the bud by focusing on prevention.


  • Diabetes
  • Thyroid Diseases
  • Metabolic Disorders
  • Over or Under Production of Hormones
  • Menopause
  • Osteoporosis
  • Difficult to treat Hypertension
  • Lipid Disorders
  • Infertility
  • Lack of Growth (short stature)
  • Cancers of the Endocrine Glands

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Diabetes is a metabolic disease where the blood sugar levels are high. If untreated, it leads to serious complications affecting major organs of the body.

Glucose, found in carbohydrates, is a major source of fuel. We need insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, for appropriate utilization of glucose in the body. Any disturbance in the production or action of insulin leads toa rise in blood glucose.

Different types of diabetes are caused due to a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

Depending on the genetic & environmental cause of diabetes, there are different types of diabetes:

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus: This is an autoimmune disorder where the insulin secreting cells of the pancreas gets destroyed due to an inappropriate response of the defense system. As a result insulin production from the pancreas stops. It is seen most commonly in young children and was previously known as juvenile diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Insulin resistance is a condition in which the cells do not respond normally to insulin. Insulin resistance results in decreased absorption of glucose into the cells. Insulin resistance in combination with a partial deficiency of insulin secretion from pancreas is believed to be responsible for development of type 2 diabetes. It was previously a disease which was limited to adults but now it is common in people of all ages including children.

Gestational diabetes mellitus occurs due to hormonal changes during pregnancy and usually resolves after the delivery.

If one suffers from type 1 diabetes, the mainstay of therapy is insulin injection as discontinuation of insulin may result in life threatening diabetic emergencies like diabetic ketoacidosis. Till today’s date, there is very little that can be done to restart insulin production from pancreas in type 1 diabetes. The main focus should be on timely administration of correct dosage of insulin and periodic health check up.

Those with type 2 diabetes should adopt a low-sugar and low fat diet; maintain a regular exercise regimen, take timely medicines and schedule timely follow ups with treating doctor.

As of now, there is no cure for diabetes. Those with type 1 need life-long insulin injections. Those with type 2 can bring it under control with a regimen of medication, diet and exercise. Rarely, there might be a window period where the doctor might discontinue medicines, but it usually recurs.

Diabetes, if unchecked, leads to complications that involve multiple organs.

Increased risk of coronary artery disease, heart attacks, strokes & atherosclerosis (narrowing of arteries)

Eye damage – Retinopathy, cataracts, glaucoma, blindness.

Kidney damage, which can lead to end-stage kidney disease or renal failure.

Nerve damage – tingling numbness, pain or burning sensation in limbs

Erectile Dysfunction

Diabetic foot disease that may lead to gangrene, resulting

Increased risk of bacterial and fungal skin infections

Poor wound healing in amputation.

To check yourself for diabetes, run through a list of symptoms:

If you suspect Diabetes:

High blood glucose cause symptoms like frequency of urination, increased appetite, increased thirst, weight loss, easy fatigability, blurred vision, dryness of skin, recurrent yeast infections

If you suspect Diabetes Type 1: Above mentioned symptoms occurring in a child can be a clue to type 1 diabetes. Sometimes with very high glucose in type 1 diabetes, stomach pain, nausea and vomiting, shortness of breath and drowsiness can occur, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis.

If you suspect Diabetes Type 2: Type 2 diabetes can remain silent and is often detected during a routine health check up. If the blood glucose levels are high, the above mentioned symptoms can also occur in type 2 diabetes.

Diabetic medications are usually safe. They sometimes cause side effects like nausea, loss of appetite, bloating and diarrhea. Some of the diabetic medications can cause low sugar which has to be recognized and corrected immediately. If a medication is causing any side effect please contact your doctor for optimizing your medicines.

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