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Total hip replacement: An easy understanding

Total hip replacement: An easy understanding

Hip replacement is a popular orthopaedic procedure that is recommended to patients with an arthritic hip. It is the last resort of treatment when non-invasive options like medication and alternate therapies fail to give relief from pain and other symptoms. Procedures like hip and knee replacement in Kolkata, have helped thousands of patients to get back to a normal and pain-free life. Over 70,000 hip replacement procedures are performed every year in India alone.

Let us first try to understand what Arthritis is and how it affects the hips.

Well, arthritis is not a condition but an umbrella term used for a variety of conditions marked by the gradual wear and tear or degeneration of the joints. Normally the joint surface is very smooth and designed to allow pain-free movement. However, Arthritis can cause this smooth surface to wear out, thereby allowing the bones to rub against each other. This can lead to immense pain and discomfort. Experts from the best multispeciality hospital in Kolkata suggest that Arthritis can be the result of a variety of factors but it can be quite difficult to determine the exact cause. In the majority of the cases, it is linked with it should be related to wear and tear, commonly referred to as osteoarthritis.

It is pertinent to note that although arthritis is one of the major indications of hip replacement, it is not the only one. There are many other factors that can damage the hip joint and call for the need for a hip replacement. We have listed a few of these with the help of experts specialising in hip replacement in Kolkata.

  • Congenital or childhood disorders like dislocated hip,  Perthes disease, slipped epiphysis, etc.
  • Growth abnormality involving the hip
  • Excessive strain or overuse of the joint
  • Loss of blood supply to the joint
  • Chronic infection involving the joint
  • Disorders related to the connective tissue
  • Stagnant lifestyle and obesity
  • Inflammation caused by rheumatoid arthritis

How is an arthritic hip different from a normal hip?

In an arthritic hip, the cartilage lining is much thinner than a normal hip. In extreme cases, it might even be absent.

The capsule of the affected hip is swollen, however, the degree of damage and inflammation varies depending upon the stage and type of arthritis. The joint space is very irregular, or even narrow, which is quite evident on an x-ray. Hip Arthritis is often marked by the presence of bone spurs, that time to develop along the edges of the joint. As a result of all these, an arthritic hip tends to be very stiff, with a limited range of motion.

What are the indications of total hip replacement?

It is important to note that, although hip replacement is a very popular procedure it is not recommended to every patient. Doctors initially resort to the use of non-conservative treatment options like medication and therapies. These however do not work effectively in extreme cases, where the damage is chronic and irreversible. There are certain criteria and indications that suggest that you might need a hip replacement. These include:

  • Arthritis, that is confirmed on x-ray
  • Pain and inflammation that is not responding well to conservative treatments
  • Inability to take part in the day to day activities due to limited range of motion.
  • Pain that makes it difficult for your to sleep at night

In order to make sure that you are the right candidate, you will be required to undergo a series of tests for precise evaluation. You may be required to go for immediate surgery or asked to wait for a few months depending upon the adversity of your condition.

Managing asthma in kids under 5 years of age

Managing asthma in kids under 5 years of age

Asthma is a chronic medical condition marked by severe inflammation in the airways that allow oxygen to reach the lungs. It is marked by frequent episodes of breathing difficulty, commonly referred to as asthma attacks, which may be triggered by a variety of reasons including allergies, infections and overexertion. In some cases, even stress can lead to an asthma attack. The problem can be quite overwhelming for adults, let alone for kids below 5 years of age. In infants and toddlers, asthma is characterized by two primary symptoms, i.e. comparing and wheezing, which may also be caused by some other underlying medical condition. As per the top children’s asthma doctor, it is due to this very reason that the diagnosis and management of asthma in small children can be comparatively difficult.

Even the standard diagnostic modalities available for assessing a person’s breathing rate may not be able to give precise results when it comes to children. Hence, proper management and regular monitoring of asthma in small children, especially those below 5 years of age are mandatory.

Here are a few symptoms that you need to look out for, as listed by experts from the best multispeciality hospital in Kolkata.

  • Cough and wheezing
  • Breathlessness
  • Tightness or pressure in the chest

It is pertinent to know that the symptoms may vary in terms of their severity and patterns and these usually tend to worsen at night. The coughing and wheezing also become adverse and your child becomes more vulnerable to infections and allergy triggers.

There are certain events that may trigger your child’s asthma attack. These include the following:

  • Respiratory infections like cold
  • Exposure to certain allergens like dust, cigarette smoke or pollen
  • Indulging in rigorous activities
  • Feeding rapidly (in infants)
  • Sudden shock or trauma that causes emotional reactions like crying
  • Gastrointestinal reflux
  • Weather change

By now you must be familiar with asthma and its major triggers. Now, let us focus on how we can manage the condition in small children. As per the leading pulmonologist in Kolkata, the primary aim of Asthma treatment in children is to treat airway inflammation and prevent asthma attacks. The treatment also focuses on reducing the impact of asthma triggers and helping the child lead a normal life.

The treatment is not started abruptly, but there is a stepwise approach that is to be followed. The doctor may start with a smaller dose and increase it gradually. If the child is stable and does not show any major symptoms, the dose may be again lowered.

Long-term control with the help of medication – These medicines are usually taken on a daily basis and include:

  • Inhaled corticosteroids – This is one of the most common drugs used for asthma management in children below 5 years of age. In fact, it is the most preferred treatment listed in the National Asthma Education and Prevention Guidelines. Some of the commonly inhaled corticosteroids available in the market include budesonide and fluticasone.
  • Leukotrienes modifiers – These are usually recommended to children who do not show considerable improvement with inhaled corticosteroids alone. The medicine is available in the form of chewable tablets. For infants, the same can be given in the pureed form.
  • Long-acting beta-agonist – This is also an inhaled drug that can be given along with corticosteroids.
  • Cromolyn – It is an inhaled drug that helps to block any kind of informative event. It is given in combination with corticosteroid treatment and is known to add to the effectiveness of the same.
  • Oral corticosteroids – These are given when inhaled corticosteroids fail to help the patient.

Medication for short term management-

Also referred to as short-acting bronchodilators, these medicines provide instant relief from the symptoms of asthma, however, the effect does not last for more than 4 to 6 hours. These include albuterol and levalbuterol. These are usually given to children who do not have any severe asthma symptoms. However, if a child needs the medication frequently, there might be a need to shift to long-term medication.

best treatment for insomnia

Possible causes of Insomnia

Possible causes of Insomnia

Insomnia is a very common sleep disorder, affecting nearly 35 per cent of the adult population. Marked by the inability to fall asleep or stay asleep during the night, insomnia can lead to serious effects and give rise to a variety of health issues. The fact that you are not able to complete your sleep at night is very likely to make you feel tired and sleepy during the day. As such, you may find it rather difficult to focus on what you are doing and also face higher risks of automobile accidents. As per the best doctor for sleep disorders in Kolkata, sleep deprivation can affect you both physically, as well as mentally. But, the question here is, ‘What causes Insomnia?’

Before we answer this question, it is important for you to understand that the condition is not the same for everyone and different people can understand distinct forms of insomnia, depending on various factors, including the reason behind it. While short term insomnia is experienced only for a brief period of time, chronic insomnia may be experienced for months at a stretch. While, for some, the major problem is falling asleep, for others, it is the inability to maintain that sleep.

There are numerous causes of insomnia, and in certain cases, more than one factor may be involved.

Experts offering the best treatment for insomnia suggest that the problem might be caused by a state of hyperarousal, which interferes with your body’s ability to fall asleep. These can be either mental or physical and may be triggered by numerous factors.

  • Insomnia caused by stress – Mental stress can affect your body in a number of ways which can directly or indirectly impact the quality of your sleep. No matter what the source of the stress is, whether it is due to excess workload, relationship problems, exposure to traumatic situations (post-traumatic stress disorder) or any other reason. Our body physically responds to the stress, leading to hyperarousal. The fact that you are not able to sleep properly may add to your stress and the chain continues. Studies have shown that some individuals are more prone to stress-related sleeping problems as compared to others. This is due to higher sleep reactivity.
  • Insomnia caused by an irregular sleep schedule – Ever heard about the circadian rhythm? Well, in simple terms, it can be defined as the body’s internal clock, which somewhat works in synchronization with the natural day and night. In some people, the circadian cycle can get misaligned owing to their irregular sleep patterns. For instance, people who work night shifts, or people who travel from one time zone to another. While the rhythm may be shifted backwards in certain cases, in others, it may be shifted forward.
  • Insomnia caused by unhealthy lifestyle – Experts from the best multispeciality hospital in Kolkata suggest that unhealthy lifestyle practices, too, can be a contributing factor behind your insomnia. Unhealthy routines and lifestyle habits can affect your body in countless ways, however, we do not usually realize this until the damage is done. These habits include:
  • Staying up late for work or any other reason, which keeps your brain stimulated
  • Napping frequently during the daytime
  • Waking up late in the morning
  • Taking caffeine late in the evening or at night
  • Insomnia caused by pain and other medical conditions – It is extremely difficult to fall asleep when you are in pain, as the situation can be very uncomfortable and make it difficult for you to lie still in bed. The pain may be due to an injury or an underlying condition. In some cases, insomnia may also be the result of the medication that you have been taking for the management of some other medical condition.

Total knee replacement in Kolkata: A layman’s guide

Total knee replacement in Kolkata: A layman’s guide

Knee Replacement

Recommended to go for total knee replacement, but getting second thoughts? Well, this blog is just for you, to help you understand the procedure and make an informed decision. Around 120,000 knee replacement procedures are carried out in India annually. Offered at the best Multispeciality hospital in Kolkata, knee replacement has helped to transform the lives of hundreds and thousands of people who were struggling to get back on their feet and indulge in normal day to day activities without any pain or discomfort.

What is total knee replacement?

Total knee replacement is the most common surgical orthopaedic procedure that aims at replacing all the components of the knee joint with artificially created prosthetic components which mimic the original ones in terms of structure and function. Unlike partial knee replacement, which involves the replacement of only one part of the knee joint, total knee replacement involves all the 3 components, i.e., the femur (thigh bone), the tibia (shin bone) and patella (kneecap).

Performed under the influence of anaesthesia, the surgery can take anywhere between 1 to 3 hours depending upon the extent of the damage. The procedure has a significantly high success rate with no age restriction. If you are planning to undergo total knee replacement in Kolkata, CMRI is your ultimate destination as the hospital is a hub for some of the best knee replacement doctors who are recognized both nationally and internationally.

Why have you been recommended to go for the procedure? 

Total knee replacement is recommended to patients whose knee joints have been completely damaged due to an underlying medical condition, excessive wear and tear, and injuries or trauma sustained in an accident. In such cases, the joints become dysfunctional making it difficult for you to carry out your day-to-day work, owing to the limited range of motion and excruciating pain. Degenerative joint diseases are the leading cause of knee disability. These include:

  • Osteoarthritis – Osteoarthritis is one of the most common types of arthritis that predominantly affects women above 50 years of age. It refers to the gradual withering of the cartilage that cushions the knee bones. As a result of this, the bones start rubbing against each other, resulting in chronic joint pain and stiffness.
  • Rheumatoid arthritis – Rheumatoid arthritis belongs to a special category of arthritis, i.e., inflammatory arthritis. It is marked by the inflammation or thickening of the synovial membrane, which eventually results in the loss of cartilage.
  • Post-traumatic arthritis –Experts from the best Multispeciality hospital in Kolkata usually recommend the surgery to patients suffering from any of the above-mentioned problems, in case they are not responding to medications and therapy, which are usually the first line of treatment.

Is there anything that you need to take care of prior to the procedure?

Just like any other medical procedure, total knee replacement, too, calls for the need for proper preparation. There surely are certain things that are to be taken care of, and these include:

You will be required to undergo some tests for the proper evaluation and assessment of your knees. This will help the doctors to devise a proper treatment plan in accordance with your specific needs.
You need to make sure that your doctor is well aware of your medical history and inform him/her about any medication that you have been taking. You might need to stop taking these for some time.
You will need to abstain from eating anything, starting 12 hours prior to the surgery
After the procedure, you might need to use a walker or crutches for a time. It is better to make all the arrangements beforehand so that you can have a hassle-free experience.

How is the procedure going to change your life?  Knee replacement can help to transform your life. The procedure offers relief from excruciating pain and swelling which can prevent you from carrying out your day-to-day work. With enhanced mobility and improved range of motion, the surgery makes it possible for you to indulge in various activities that you earlier used to refrain from.

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